Monday, 28 October 2013

Dante's Inferno, Canto 2

The second canto of Dante's Inferno is in some ways a continuation of Canto 1, where Dante encounters the poet Virgil while lost and impeded in the selva oscura, the dark forest of mid-life dissolution and oppression. Dante agrees to be be led by Virgil through the realms of hell and purgatory in order to reach the portals of paradise and thereby participate in the beatific vision.

In Canto 2, Dante realises the depth of commitment required in such an undertaking and has second thoughts about the whole venture.

Virgil then elaborates on how he was himself inducted into the mission of rescuing Dante by Beatrice, Dante's first love whose earthly life ended at an early age.

Virgil enables Dante to overcome his fears and commit once again to the transformative journey that will take him from a state of ignorance, desire and passion to one of progressively awakening insight.

Canto 2 of Dante's Inferno can be streamed using the media player above. A CD quality audio file is also available for download here.

[Audio and text for Canto 1 can be accessed here.
Audio and text for Canto 3 can be accessed here.]


Emptywhale: The Boy Who Could Hear Colours (Internet Archive)
Remix: vincentd

sbordage: Cicadas - recorded in Naxos, Greece. (Freesound)
klankbeeld: Birds - recorded in Zeeland, Netherlands (Freesound)

Vincent Di Stefano

The Poem

Inferno: Canto 2

The day’s last light and the darkening air
Set free the creatures of the darkening earth
From their long and wearying daylight labours.

And alone I prepared to fight the battle
Of the path and the pathos that both lay before me,
And this I retell now through unerring memory.

My muse and my genius come help me now
O memory that harbours all things that I saw
Make known to all your deepest nobility.

And so I began: “My poet and guide,
Judge now my courage that it be not wanting
Before you entrust me to cross the high pass.

You sang then of how the father of Silvius
Courageous Aeneas while yet in the flesh
Strode without fear into the eternal.

It can be no surprise to all men of high vision
That the Lord who delivers us from every evil
Would show him great kindness while on that dark journey

Knowing full well the fate that awaited him
The fate fore-ordained by the powers of heaven
To be father of Rome and of all her wide empire,

The purpose whereof, to speak truth more clearly,
Was to bring into being that hallowed high place
Where the heirs of Saint Peter would later be seated.

And by that descent which you praised in your telling
He learned of the ways that would bring him to glory
And lead to the mantling of popes through the ages.

The vessel Saint Paul underwent the same journey
As the instrument chosen to strengthen our faith
In the way that will bring us to certain salvation. 

But why should I come and by whose decree?
I am not Aeneas. I am not Saint Paul.
There is none who would deem me be worthy of this.

For if I agreed to take on this journey
I fear that our going would lead us through folly
Hear me my sage for my reason is slipping.”

And as one who unwills that which he first willed
Whose purpose reverses with each new reflection
And turns back from what he has just undertaken

So too was I on that darkening slope
When by vacillate thinking I squandered the valour
That had so charged my spirit just moments before.

“If I well understand the words you have spoken”
Replied the generous spirit before me
“Your heart is now gripped by the cowardly dread

That can so stun a man that he holds back in terror
From doing what honour and courage demand
Just like a beast that fears its own shadow.

So to free you forever of this useless fear
Now I will tell you what drove me to find you
And how I first learned of your piteous plight.

I dwelled in the place of spirits suspended
When the voice of a blessed and beautiful woman
Called and I fell to her fragrant command.

Her eyes shone more brightly than stars do in heaven
And she spoke to me gently with words soft and calming.
In the tones of an angel she said to me:

“O kindly spirit of Mantova born
Whose fame still shines bright in the memory of men
And will further illumine the ages to come

A dear friend of mine though no friend of fortune
Now flounders alone on a harsh stony waste
Lost and obstructed in nervous retreat.

And from what I’ve heard told by others in heaven
I fear that he may have so lost his way
That I have arrived now too late to save him.

So rise and make use of your eloquent powers
And all other means you can summon to save him
So that I may find peace and that I be consoled.

I am Beatrice who now sends you to find him
And I yearn to return to the place that I came from.
It is love that impels me to ask for your help.

And when I return to my Heavenly Master
I will speak of you often in praise and thanksgiving.”
She then stood silent. I then began:

“O woman of beauty and of purest high virtue
By whom humankind has come far to surpass
All that is held in the orbit of heaven

Your command so fills me with pride and with honour
To accept it this instant would be yet belated
I wish for no more than to faithfully serve you.

But tell me, why have you deigned to descend
To these terrible depths that for so long have held me
Far from that realm that is your true home?”

“Since you wish so strongly to know of my purpose”
Said she, “I will tell you both briefly and clearly
Why I have come here without trepidation.

One should only be wary of things that may carry
The force and the power to bring harm upon you
Fear nothing else, for they are as shadows.

I was made by our God in his infinite mercy
In such a way that your pain cannot touch me
Nor the flames and the fires that flare all around us.

Our Mother above was deep moved by sorrow
For the plight of the one to whom I now send you
That the stern judge of heaven Himself has been softened.

She called to Lucia, the bearer of light
Saying to her: “Your true servant now needs you.
I call upon you to bring him protection.”

So Lucia the foe of all who are ruthless
Arose and then came to the place I was sitting
Alongside Rachel our well-renowned elder.

She said: “Beatrice, beloved of God
Why do you not tend to the man who so loved you
That he left the low ways of the derelict herd?

Are you not moved by his cries and his callings?
Can you not see the death he contends with
Flooding upon him more strong than the sea?

There is none on the earth who could move more swiftly
Even while fleeing the darkest of dangers
Than I after hearing what she had recounted.

I came down to you from my blessed throne
Fully trusting the power in your honest speech
That uplifts both yourself and all who would hear it.”

And after the telling of all of these things
Her luminous eyes full with tears turned away
Which made me hasten determined to find you.

And so I have come to you just as she wanted
To lead you away from that vehement creature
That is blocking the way to the mountain before you.

But tell me now what folly has gripped you?
Why is your heart so ensnared and so doubting?
And what has become of your courage and passion?

You have three blessed women who now look upon you
With care from the heart of the high court of heaven
And my words of truth as a promise of good.”

And just as closed florets burdened by night-frost
When graced by the light of the sun’s warming fires
Will rise and will open to breathe in the day,

So too did my failing honour revive
As the spirit of courage emboldened my heart,
And I spoke as one now fully transformed:

“O blessed woman who has come to my rescue,
And you kindest soul who without hesitation
Accepted the labour that she put before you

You have charged my heart with a will and desire
Your fine speech has drawn me to take on this journey
My resolve to be with you now fully restored.

So let us away with but one will between us
With you as my guide, my lord and my master.”
After I said this, he turned and proceeded.

And we moved on towards the high wooded pass.  

[translated by Vincent Di Stefano]

 A pdf copy of this translation is available on request. Contact:

Wednesday, 4 September 2013

Dante's Inferno, Canto 1

Dante's The Divine Comedy has exercised the imagination of poets, artists, historians, theologians, lovers of literature and lovers of poetry for the past seven centuries. Numerous English translations have appeared since Henry Carey published the first widely circulated English translation in the early 1800s. William Blake was so moved by Carey's translation that he spent the last years of his life teaching himself Italian so as to work directly with Dante's text. During the final year of his life, Blake worked relentlessly on a series of watercolour illustrations for The Divine Comedy. The Victorian Arts Centre in Melbourne currently houses 36 of those watercolours.

It has been long recognised by poets that the greater power within poetry manifests more strongly in the hearing rather than in the reading. This has ever been the way since the Greek rhapsodei sang the memory of their Homeric epics through the centuries.

With this in mind, the present posting offers a trance voicing, with accompanying text, of the first canto of Dante's immortal Inferno, the first book of The Divine Comedy. T.S. Eliot wrote in 1929: "Dante and Shakespeare divide the modern world between them; there is no third." Most of us are familiar with at least some of Shakespeare's works. It is hoped that this presentation will help to make the timeless mastery of Dante Alighieri more accessible to an English-speaking audience.

Canto 1 of Dante's Inferno can be streamed using the media player above. A CD quality audio file is also available for download here.

[Audio and text for Canto 2 can be accessed here.
Audio and text for Canto 3 can be accessed here.]


Doc & Lena Selyanina:  Neptune (Internet Archive)
                                   Wanderer (Internet Archive) 
(Remix: vincentd)

Rhapsodize: Crickets (Freesound)
Manda_g: Owl (Freesound)
Soundbytez: African Lion (Freesound)
Viorelvio: Wolf howl (Freesound)

Vincent Di Stefano

The Story

The Divine Comedy (La Divina Commedia) was written by the Florentine poet and political activist Dante Alighieri over a twenty year period after he was banished from Florence by his political enemies in 1301. He remained in exile for the remainder of his life.

The Divine Comedy is in essence a poem of transformation. It tracks the progression of the soul from a state of immersion in ignorance, desire and passion to one of progressive awakening and transcendental insight. This process is described allegorically as Dante journeys through the realms of Hell (Inferno), Purgatory (Purgatorio), and Heaven (Paradiso).

The first canto of the Inferno both sets the scene and anticipates the full scope of the immense narrative encompassed in The Divine Comedy. It begins midway in Dante's life, a turning point when he realises that he has lost his way. As he tries to find a clear path out of the morass, he serially encounters three wild beasts, a leopard, a lion, and a wolf. These are variously deemed by most commentators to be allegorical representations of the wild and uncontrollable impulses that can distort our lives and relationships. Their presence makes it impossible for him to proceed out of his entangled darkness.

At the point of greatest despair, Dante encounters a shadowy figure who reveals himself to be the ghost of his beloved poet from ancient Roman, Virgil. Dante is reassured by Virgil's obvious familiarity with both the terrain and the nature of the obstacles that confront him.

One of the consistent elements of the Inferno - and in fact the whole of The Divine Comedy - is the appearance throughout the narrative of both historical and mythical characters. This aspect emerges in the opening canto of the Inferno, where Dante offers praise to his patron, Can Grande della Scala ("the great hound"), a powerful warrior and ruler of Verona from 1311 till his death in 1329. Similarly, Virgil speaks of Aeneas, Camilla, Turnus, Nisus and Euryalus, each of whom feature prominently in his own epic poem, The Aeneid.

Virgil offers to lead Dante out of the danger into which he has strayed, but lets him know from the start that they will need to travel through the realms of damnation and of purgation before arriving at the place of "the blessed ones." Virgil further relates that he cannot escort Dante through "that blessed realm" but that he will there meet "one more worthy than myself to guide you" thus alluding to the later appearance of Beatrice.

The Poem

Inferno: Canto I

When midway on the course of our life’s journey,
I found myself within a glooming forest
Lost alone with no clear path before me.

To tell of how it was now tests me sorely
To speak of that dark forest wild and glooming
The thought of which still grips my mind with fear.

So bitter was it death is hardly worse
But to better speak of the good I found therein
I now will tell of other things I saw.

I cannot say how there I came to be
So full of sleep and sloth had I become
Through leaving far behind the ways of truth.

But soon I came upon a sloping hill
Arising from the end of the dark valley
That had so seized my heart with fear and dread.

I looked upon its heights, and saw its shoulder
Newly mantled with the beams of the bright sun
That has ever guided travellers on their way.

And then the fear that had so chilled the waters
Of my heart all through that night of deadly terror
Began to melt as frost turns into dew.

And like a man who hauls himself exhausted
From a wild and foaming sea to welcome sand
Looks back upon the peril that near took him,

So too my soul, even while still fleeing,
Stared back upon the path now well behind me
That none before had passed through and yet lived.

Now having paused to rest my weary body
I turned again to climb that stony slope
The lower foot placed firmly with each step.

But even as I started I was startled
A leopard light-of-foot and moving swiftly
With skin all sleek that sparkled like the night

Did stop me in my tracks and held me firmly
I had no way of going any further
My racing mind thought only of retreat.

The lightened sky held promise of a morning
As the rising sun moved slow through constellations
Of the ancient stars with which it had long travelled

Since love divine first moved those wondrous spheres.
This brought new hope, despite the dire presence
Of the shining panther with its flashing pelt

In that early hour and in that gentle season.
But hope was crushed when terror then reclaimed me
As a mighty lion suddenly appeared.

It approached me with so menacing a presence
With head held high and with such rabid hunger
That the air itself did seem to shake and quiver.

And then a wolf, more gaunt than all the others
All lean and taut, skeletal in her bearing
Who many a life had claimed and torn asunder.

Her very presence paralysed my mind
The sight of her so froze my limbs with fear
I lost all hope of crossing to the heights.

And who among those having gained great wealth
Confronted with the loss of all they own
Would not bewail and weep their fallen fate?

So too felt I before that restless beast
From which I slow and steadily retreated
Into the dark and sun-abandoned forest. 

And as I languished in that wretched place of woe
A presence faint took form before my eyes
And seemed to whisper hoarsely in the silence.

When I finally descried him in that wasteland
I called out loud: “Have mercy on my soul
Whether you be man or shade from Hades!”

And he replied: “No man am I like you
Though man I was, a son of Lombardy
My parents being citizens of Mantova.
I was born late in the reign of emperor Julius
And lived in Rome under the good Augustus
During the time of false and lying gods.

I was poet then and sang of great Aeneas,
The son of Anchises who fled from Troy
As Ilion the proud burned up behind him.

But why do you turn back? Why are you not
Now climbing the bright hill that stands before you
Which is the source of all delight and joy?”

All shy with blushing face I asked of him,
“Are you then the fountain-mouth-ed Virgil,
From whom has flowed forth mighty tides of verse?

Most radiant and clear of all of the poets,
Now bring to full fruition the great love
That carried me through your heroic verses.

For long you were my master and my mentor.
From you alone I learned that sweet new style
That brought me to such honoured acclamation.

Can you not now see the fearsome beast
That has cast me back and made my pulse atremble?
Beloved sage, I know that you can help me.”

Seeing my tears, he then softly answered:
“There is another path that you must take
To leave behind this place of desolation,

For the beast that holds you in its grip of terror
Will not allow that any pass beyond her
But will destroy the life of all who test her.

And her nature is so violent and so vicious
That even filled with those she has devoured
Her hunger rages wilder than before.

She has satisfied the lusts of packs of wolves
And seeks to draw yet others till that day
When the great hound comes to tear her life asunder.

He will not eat the fruits of earth or metal
But will take his feed from valour, love and wisdom,
And his reign will range from citadel to stable.

He will bring much needed healing to our land
Poor Italy for which Cammilla died
As too did Turnus, Nisus, and Euryalus.

He will hunt this blood-crazed wolf through every village
Until he casts her back into the hell
From which she did so envious emerge.

So I think it best that you now follow me,
As I will serve you as your faithful guide
And lead you onward to a place eternal.

And there you’ll hear the screams of great despair
And there you’ll see the old tormented spirits
Who wish only to die a second death.

But after that you will see the hopeful souls
Who rest within the flames in the great hope
That they will come one day to join the blessed ones.

And should you wish to rise to where they are,
Into that blessed realm, then I must leave you
With one more worthy than myself to guide you.

For the King who reigns therein will not allow
The rebel who I am to stand before him
Or ever deign to walk his streets of splendour.

He is the King of all, and there his kingdom
Shines bright around his jewelled throne of glory.
How great the joy of those that he has chosen!”

I said to him: “I ask you now my poet
In the name of that one God you never knew
To help me flee the evils that assail me,

And guide me through the places that await us,
Through the realms of lost and sad and suffering souls  
To reach at last the gate of great Saint Peter.

He rose and strode ahead.
And I followed close behind.

[translated by Vincent Di Stefano]

A PDF copy of this translation is available on request. Contact